Friday, December 5, 2008

Jaman Jepang

Ketika sedang iseng, saya membuka file-file tugas saya. Tiba-tiba saya menemukan beberapa penjelasan dan sedikit gambar yang berhubungan dengan dua jaman sejarah di Jepang. Jomon dan Yayoi namanya. Ada banyak perbedaan di kedua jaman itu, namun saya sendiri tidak begitu ingat.

Kedua gambar tersebut adalah ciri khas dari jaman Jomon.

Beginning about the fourth century B.C., Jomon culture was gradually replaced by the more advanced Yayoi culture, which takes its name from the site in Tokyo where pottery of this period was first discovered in 1884. The new culture first appeared in western Japan and then spread east and north to Honshu. While some aspects of Yayoi society evolved from the Jomon, more important to its development was the technique of wet-rice cultivation, which is thought to have been introduced to Japan from Korea and southeastern China sometime between 1000 B.C. and the first century A.D. In keeping with an agrarian lifestyle, the people of the Yayoi culture lived in permanently settled communities, made up of thatched houses clustered into villages.

In striking contrast to Jomon pottery, Yayoi vessels have clean, functional shapes. Nonetheless, the technical process of pottery making remained essentially the same, and in all likelihood women using the coil method continued to be the primary producers. Two technical differences, however, are significant: the fine clay surfaces of Yayoi vessels were smoothed, and clay slip was sometimes applied over the body to make it less porous. Many Yayoi vessels resemble pots found in Korea, and some scholars have proposed that the Yayoi style originated in that land, arriving first in northern Kyushu and gradually spreading northeastward. Nevertheless, some pieces clearly show the influence of Jomon ceramics, leading others to speculate that Yayoi wares were the product of an indigenous evolution from the less elaborate Jomon wares of northern Kyushu.

Metallurgy was also introduced from the Asian mainland during this time. Bronze and iron were used to make weapons, armor, tools, and ritual implements such as bells (dotaku). The latter were frequently decorated with hatched lines, triangles, spirals, and geometric patterns, although representations of domesticated animals and scenes of daily life appear on some examples.

A class society began to emerge during the Yayoi period. Over time, the Yayoi people grouped themselves into clan-nations, which by the first century numbered more than a hundred. Throughout the second and third centuries, the clans fought among themselves until the Yamato clan gained dominance in the fifth century.

Dan ternyata, pada jaman itu juga terdapat kue yang khas.

The Jomon cookie is a food from the Jomon Period and is considered to be an important food source. Fossils of the cookie have been discovered from archaeological sites and examined by researchers. It has a high nutritional value and can be stored well. Ingredients of the cookie varies from season to season. However, powdery nuts were usually used in the cookie throughout the year.
The Jomon people gathered acorns, Japanese horse chestnuts and chestnuts. The bitterness from the nuts was removed by soaking them in water for a while. The acorn and Japanese horse chestnut are too sour to eat without soaking. The Jomon people had knowledge of methods for removing the astringency of those nuts. The people had to spend time and effort on cooking the Jomon cookie. Gathered nuts were ground with stone tools and mixed with minced wild animal meat, water and salt. The ingredients were powdery nuts, chopped meat, egg, salt, and water. The cookie dough was divided and made into a 2-inch flat-circular shape.
Today, experiencing some aspects of ancient Japanese culture is popular in Japan. Therefore, there are some places where people can experience creating ancient things such as building fire with wooden tools. Also, sometimes school kids make Jomon cookies in class.

Traditional Recipe Arranged Recipe
Minced wild boar meat, deer meat, or chicken Minced pork OR chicken; 1/2 lb. *Substitute minced pork or chicken for wild boar and other meat
Egg 1 Egg
Sweet acorn powder or ground Japanese horse chestnuts 5 oz. Walnut
Acorn powder 5 oz. Almond powder or sliced almond *Substitute almond powder for acorn.
Salt, a suitable amount 1/2 tsp. Salt
The art of cooking (for Arranged recipe)
1. Grind walnut and almond into powder.
2. Add minced pork or chicken, walnut and almond powder, salt, and an egg into a bowl and mix them.
3. Make it into round cookie shape about 3 cm in diameter.
4. Bake them in an oven at 400 degree F or bake them with a hot plate until you smell something pleasant. (*Bake until it is well done*)

Seperti yang tadi saya katakan, masih ada satu jaman lainnya yang juga pernah mewarnai perjalanan sejarah negara Jepang. Yaitu Yayoi. Dan berikut penjelasannya.

Yayoi (弥生時代) is an era in Japan from 300 BC to A.D. 250. It is named after the section of Tōkyō where archaeological investigations uncovered its first recognized traces. The Yayoi period is marked either by the start of the practice of growing rice in a paddy field or a new Yayoi style earthenware.
Following the Jōmon period, the Yayoi flourished between about 300 BC and A.D. 250 from southern Kyūshū to northern Honshū. Modern discoveries suggest that it started as early as 900 BC. Because of the seemingly abrupt and dramatic cultural changes associated with the Yayoi period, it was once generally assumed that the Yayoi culture did not develop directly from the Jōmon, but that the Yayoi were a people who migrated from the Asian mainland. Recent discoveries, like evidence of dry rice farming predating wet rice farming, and the fact that the genetic makeup of Japanese rice is similar to that of the sticky rice found in Laos, make the following theory much more tentative.

As Korea is the most accessible location, a theory publicized in the early Meiji period in Japan argued that the Yayoi culture was brought to the Japanese islands by immigrants from the Korean peninsula, most likely from Goguryeo (a.k.a. Koguryo) or Baekje (a.k.a. Paekche). This theory is weakened by the fact that there are limited similarities between the Korean and Japanese languages, and that it is unlikely that the roughly 4 million people needed to fill the population gap between the Jōmon and Yayoi periods could have migrated in such a short time (though the larger population of the Yayoi period could be accounted for by the greater nutrition possible from an agriculturally-based diet, as opposed to the more limited caloric intake of a hunter-gatherer diet). On the other hand, grammatical structures are similar between the two languages, and some aspects of the Japanese language closely resemble that of Goguryeo. Historians such as Jared Diamond have theorized that the Yayoi may have been related to the Goguryeo or the Baekje, tribes that were eventually incorporated into the medieval Korean state[1]. Information on the Goguryeo language is limited, but analysis by Christopher Beckwith and others appears to support a connection to ancient Japanese.[2]
One current theory is that the Yayoi culture did emerge out of the Jōmon culture with only limited immigration from Baekje upon its extinction. The practice of rice farming that was once believed to have been passed on from China through the Korean peninsula is instead thought to have been passed from southern China by way of Okinawa, and continued into southern Korea. However, this theory or limited migration does not account for the two very different physical types of people in Japan. They are differentiated by tooth shape, body type, and several skull features (including overall shape of the head, eye sockets, and nose).
The earliest Yayoi people, themselves using chipped stone tools, appear to have started from northern Kyūshū and intermixed with the Jōmon. Although the pottery of the Yayoi was more technologically advanced—--produced on a potter's wheel—it was more simply decorated than Jōmon ware. The Yayoi made bronze ceremonial bells, mirrors, and weapons and, by the 1st century A.D., iron agricultural tools and weapons. As the population increased and society became more complex, they wove cloth, lived in permanent farming villages, constructed buildings of wood and stone, accumulated wealth through land ownership and the storage of grain, and developed distinct social classes. Their irrigated, wet-rice culture was similar to that of central and south China, requiring heavy human labor, which led to the development and eventual growth of a highly sedentary, agrarian society. Unlike China, which had to undertake massive public works and water-control projects, leading to a highly centralized government, Japan had abundant water. In Japan, then, local political and social developments were relatively more important than the activities of the central authority and a stratified society.

Kedua jaman tersebut adalah bagian dari kehidupan Jepang. Meskipun saya tidak begitu tertarik pada sejarah, namun saya melihat sesuatu yang unik dari cara hidup, artefak yang ditemukan dan juga tempat tinggal pada kedua jaman tersebut.

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